Posted on

neutering a dog later in life

Some dogs may have learned to lift their leg to spray, so they’ll keep doing that after they are neutered. It can reduce sexualized behaviors. They recommend getting your dog neutered only once they are six months old. They will guard it against any “unfriendly” visitor. that is a whole different matter. Their production escorts the beginning of sexual maturity. List of the Pros of Neutering Dogs. I’m currently based in Northampton, Pennsylvania, where I live with my beautiful wife, two amazing kids, and four rowdy rescue dogs. But please, before the heavily stressed and over-worked shelter staff post up about overpopulation problems (I spent a couple of years in them too), lets look at this issue with less … It is a surgical procedure for sterilization, after which the pet is unable to generate sperm. As the dog ages, the focus on diet and exercise must increase as the dog will want to eat the same amount while wanting to exercise less. Yes, it is ok to neuter older dogs as long as your licensed vet is ok. While most pet owners agree with neutering dogs, much confusion prevails regarding it. The dog is under general anesthesia when the procedure is performed. Many dogs have learned behaviors that go beyond basic hormones. The goal is to have fun more than it is to find a mate or expand personal borders. Dogs that are neutered no longer have the risk of suffering from testicular cancer, a common form of cancer in dogs, later in life. One slight difference between males and females is that for male dogs the age at which they are neutered makes no difference in the increase of … It reduces the risk of prostate and cancer problems. However, “each individual owner should discuss their specific circumstances with … Neutering your male dog will prevent them from developing testicular cancer. Less testosterone is present, which means there is less of a desire to mark territory. Fortunately it can be treated with a daily thyroid supplement for the rest of your dog's life. That issue goes away as well. The reply is ‘NEVER’. To come to this reply, it is essential to start by comprehending what neutering is all about! Because neutering initiates a hormonal change for the dog, there can be some changes to the animal’s physical characteristics over time. If your property is not fenced, if you want to let your dog roam and be ‘off leash’ then you need to have your dog neutered sooner rather than later. It is never too late to sterilize dogs. *Amazon and the Amazon logo are trademarks of Amazon.com, Inc., or its affiliates. A dog owner should consider having its male dog neutered when it is conducive. We have a huge problem with unwanted and stray dogs. 1. This is because prior to that, the testicles need physical development. As a result, she becomes unable to reproduce. The dog is taken to a veterinarian, who will then remove the dog’s testicles using strict sterile techniques. Whether male or female, your dog usually comes home with you on the same day, wearing the Elizabethan collar so that it does not start licking the operated region. A: Shelter euthanasia is the number one killer of companion animals. So, When It Is Too Late to Neuter? However, this is still a topic of debate. So, why contribute to this problem by not getting your dog neutered? There are many reasons that neutering dogs has become the norm in the United States. Myth 4 - Male dogs need to have sex before being desexed. 3. What are the benefits of neutering your male dog? Yes, they are less likely to engage in combat with other dogs. The pros and cons of neutering dogs is, in general terms, something that can be beneficial to individual pets while controlling overall population levels. Some male dogs can be overly aggressive, especially when other male dogs are encountered. Neutering is a simple surgical procedure that sterilizes a male dog so he’s incapable of parenting puppies. It is wiser to spay or neuter an old dog who is healthy rather than to do so with an old dog who is suffering from a uterine infection. Your home becomes more peaceful than before once your dog is neutered. Millions of pets have been spayed or neutered thanks to this one simple line. 1. Some may be better off not being neutered at all. It can cause urinary incontinence. All responsible dog owners are aware of the fact that dog neutering is essential unless they desire to use the pet for breeding. Check all benefits and risks. Now, that you know about the surgical procedure and the importance of neutering, it will be easy to understand the answer to the questions regarding neuter age. Some dogs may even experience an increased risk of suffering from an adverse reaction when given a vaccination. Dogs are naturally protective of their territory. In short, you should consider the surgery once the dog shows the signs of the beginning of the sexual maturity, such as meeting the opposite gender. It does not cause them to gain weight. Some unwanted behaviors in may be affected , yet in another dog those same type behaviors may not be affected. It increases several different health risks for the dog. One study shows a possible increased risk for the development of incontinence if dogs are spayed before three months of age. Neutering dogs is a big decision and many people wonder if neutering calms a dog down or if male dogs change after being neutered. 8c. Undesirable behaviors such as humping and roaming can also be attributed to sexual hormones. Yes, only such vets are reliable for such a surgery. Fortunately it can be treated with a daily thyroid supplement for the rest of your dog's life. It will also prevent them from developing an enlarged prostate later in life. Hip Dysplasia: A dog of a larger breed may be more likely to get hip dysplasia later in life if neutered too young. The right time is best determined by your vet after examining your pet. Although it doesn’t happen often, there is a small risk that the neutering procedure could cause urinary incontinence for the dog. The term ‘neutering’ is used for male dogs, while ‘spaying’ is used for female dogs. This article will try to answer why should you neuter your dog and help guide you through the process of neutering and help you to make an informed decision that suits you and your dog’s needs. However, Dr. Sherry Weaver of the website Cesar’s Way suggested that neutering earlier than six months can bring about some benefits to the dog regarding its physical development. Many of them will not have their first cycle even if they are about to become one year old. The removal of the testicles changes the hormonal balance that is within the male dog. Other unwanted behaviors such as humping also reduce significantly. This benefit is reduced when the dog is neutered later in life, so it is a good idea to consider this option around the age of 6 months. Old dogs can develop a form of "dementia" where they become disoriented in their familiar house and yard. As a general rule, I would recommend neutering most female dogs three months after their first season. Female Dogs' Increased Risk of Incontinence Later in Life All spayed female dogs have a 4.9-20% risk of developing urinary incontinence. According to the official website of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals that is aspca.org, each year witnesses around 3.3 million dogs reaching shelters and around 670,000 dogs being euthanized. That means the desire to roam and expand territory is reduced. The neutering process reduces these behaviors. 8e. When a female one is neutered, her messy heat periods are stopped forever. As the dog ages, the bladder muscles are weaker than they should be, which causes leakage. In this procedure, the stomach is sutured to the abdominal wall, which will prevent it from twisting in case it bloats later in life. If you grew up watching Bob Barker host The Price is Right, then you knew the show would be closed in the same way, every day. It is wiser to spay or neuter an old dog who is healthy rather than to do so with an old dog who is suffering from a uterine infection. This means either neutering before any seasons at all or about three months after she last had a season. Further, by preventing our pets from unwanted mating, pet owners help in reducing the number of orphans on the streets. We go to great lengths to help users better understand their dogs; however, the content on this blog is not a substitute for veterinary guidance. Dogs that are not neutered will have the urge to run away from their home if they sense a dog in heat somewhere in their neighborhood. You might be surprised to find out that male dogs are prone to testicular cancer and female dogs can get … 2. The benefits of neutering extend well beyond controlling the homeless dog population — literally saving lives. A new study reveals that spaying and neutering large-breed dogs can put them at higher risk for obesity and, in some cases, orthopedic injuries. Health Benefits of Neutering. The Pros of Spaying or Neutering Later When to Neuter a … (What an Amazing Food For Dogs), 5 Of The Best Bark Collar For Small Dogs (January 2021 Review), 5 Of The Best Shampoo for Yorkies (In-depth Guide 2020). Myth 3 - Without his testicles, a male dog won't feel like himself (i.e. Technically, no upper limit prevails on the timeframe in which this procedure has to be performed. Specifically, non-neutered (intact) male dogs have a higher risk of developing numerous diseases later in life such as testicular cancer and prostate disease. You can see this with behaviors that include leg humping and mounting other dogs of either gender. However, today, vets now like to neuter dog breeds earlier, which is the period after eight weeks. Since then, our family just kept growing, and we couldn’t be happier about it. In case of a female dog, the vet removes the ovaries and even the uterus. Spay and neuter everything. Female dogs should be neutered between seasons and not during them. In the Dog Cancer Survival Guide, Dr. D writes that there are a number of factors that need to be taken into consideration when determining a date to spay or neuter your dog. It affects the maturation process. 4. Spaying and neutering is the only way to reduce or eliminate that. Dogs that are neutered before the age of 12 months have an increased risk of osteosarcoma. According to the Humane Society of Charlotte, neutered male dogs become less aggressive towards other companions and human owners. Yes ,Neutering a dog later in life medically speaking , should not be an issue . There would be more value in breeding for puppies in such an instance, even if there are undesired behaviors that you may wish to modify. As it now cannot reproduce, it is at less risk of leaving you alone for hours in search of a mate. The current host of the show, Drew Carey, has continued on with this tradition. Urinary Problems: A female dog spayed to young is more likely to suffer from some degree of urinary incontinence and increase incidence of urinary tract infections. A growing body of research, however, suggests that … You may see more undesired behaviors instead of fewer. They also become loyal and affectionate toward their owners. Even the heat cycles come to an end, which is equivalent to a woman’s menstruation cycle. he "won't be a man"). Frequently asked questions (FAQs) and myths about neutering: 8a. In short, neuter males for improving their behavior and females for boosting their health. It’s what vets were taught. New research published in PLOS ONE found that de-sexing large-breed dogs increases their risk of becoming obese and/or suffering from non-traumatic orthopedic injuries. That’s when we went to an animal shelter and fell in love with the most adorable little rescue pup. There can be fewer spraying issues around the house as well. Neutering can be performed at any age over age 8 weeks. M-dog.org is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Spaying or neutering prior to their production can negatively affect the ability to produce these hormones in the required quantities. Though spaying or neutering an older dog has side effects, sometimes it's used to treat or prevent illness. Dogs neutered before puberty (generally age 6 months) tend to grow a bit bigger than dogs neutered after puberty (testosterone is involved in the causing bones to stop growing so without testosterone the bones stop growing later). Prior to the introduction of safe methods of surgery and anesthetics, there was a common belief to neuter only a nearly fully-grown dog, as that would help in better recovery and least discomfort. It is never too late to neuter or spay. You also experience peace of mind, as your pet is now free of many unwanted or problematic behaviors. The texture of their coat might change as well. It also means a longer, healthier life for your pet. Disabling your dog to reproduce not only benefits all furry pals but also benefits the dog’s health. Neutering is a form of surgical sterilization for male dogs. It eliminates the risk of testicular tumors and reduces the risk of prostate enlargement. The early neutering of dogs is not without it’s side effects or critics, and I’m certainly one of them. 8d. More research must be done to determine the real probability numbers. When it comes to female dogs, many vets recommend sterilization prior to the first season. Dogs that are neutered may have their coat growth patterns altered. Dogs that are neutered no longer have the risk of suffering from testicular cancer, a common form of cancer in dogs, later in life. 6. However, quick recovery is ensured with aftercare, which also keeps the risk of infections at bay. Although there may be changes to the maturation process afterward, for some dogs, the benefits here outweigh the potential disadvantages which may occur later on in life. This may sound like an extreme step to take but doing so is believed to provide significant health benefits to your dogs and reduce the number of puppies entering shelter homes or staying without homes. In other words, you should wait until the commencement of testosterone production. The neutering process takes that option away. In short, age alone, without the overall health checkup, should not be considered to choose or postpone the surgery. After spay surgery, some clinics will want to keep your dog overnight, while others will let her go home on the... Neutering. This means that only a licensed veterinarian proceeds by making incisions. Although it is possible for undesired behaviors to disappear after this procedure, it is not guaranteed. It is never too late to neuter or spay. Here are the pros and cons of neutering dogs to think about if you’re considering this procedure for your pet today. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. 8b. 4. Can reduce attraction to females, roaming, and mounting. The resulting dearth can affect the dog’s health and development. Thus, neutering for males and spaying for females are means of controlling the canine population. Spaying is major surgery requiring general anesthesia. Thus, they remain calmer than before and give you peace of mind. Some dogs may be candidates for contributing to a breed’s gene pool. This is because they cycle quite later than their smaller equivalents. It is best to discuss this with your vet, though. 11 Variable Universal Life Insurance Pros and Cons, 18 Major Advantages and Disadvantages of the Payback Period, 20 Advantages and Disadvantages of Leasing a Car, 19 Advantages and Disadvantages of Debt Financing, 24 Key Advantages and Disadvantages of a C Corporation, 16 Biggest Advantages and Disadvantages of Mediation, 18 Advantages and Disadvantages of a Gated Community, 17 Big Advantages and Disadvantages of Focus Groups, 17 Key Advantages and Disadvantages of Corporate Bonds, 19 Major Advantages and Disadvantages of Annuities, 17 Biggest Advantages and Disadvantages of Advertising. Many of us are not clear about the right time and safety. Have your pets spayed or neutered.”. 1. It does not guarantee a change in behavior. During an analysis of medical data that was recorded from 1982 to 1995, it was found that cardiac tumors were found… It is part of the healing process. The urge to mate is reduced once the neutering process has been completed. Behaviorally …. This is applicable to both males and females. In case of large and giant breeds and those with a more slow growth than usual, it is wise to wait for some more months. The danger here is making an assumption that all dogs benefit from this procedure. Most older dogs (those above the age of seven) can be spayed or neutered safely if the vet is sure about it. The advice of many veterinarians and common knowledge has taught us that hormones are the root cause of aggressive behavior in canines. If a male dog is listed as a purebred and has papers to support it, then neutering may not be the right choice. My name is Mathew Barham and I’m the editor in charge here at M-Dog. That is simply false, which is why every potential advantage and disadvantage must be carefully weighed to determine what the right course of action should be. It will also reduce the aggressiveness seen in the dog over time without reducing their desire to be active and playful every day. Even if she has gone through a heat cycle, the probability of this disease is negligible. According to many vets, a minimum age limit should be considered for sterilization. Neutered dogs were less likely to leave urine mark indoors, or to howl when left alone. No occurrence of CCL disease was observed in intact male or intact female dogs, or in late-neutered females. Growing up, my parents had a huge backyard and lots of animals. If your dog is healthy and is capable of going through the procedure, you can consult your vet regarding it and proceed. Neutering can increase the health risks of certain conditions for dogs. Myth 2 - Desexed males lose their drive to herd and hunt and guard. It is vital to keep in mind that the older the dog, the longer will be the recovery and less comfortable shall be the surgery. One of the most common changes that is seen happens to the coat. Above all, neutered dogs, whether male or female, tend to live longer and healthier with improved temperament. Some male dogs are hypersexualized. Additionally, M-dog.org participates in various other affiliate programs, and we sometimes get a commission through purchases made through our links. Desexing removes hormone-producing organs (the ovaries or testicles) that researchers are now finding are actually quite important to overall health. … This results in different questions, such as when is it too late to neuter a dog or what is the right age for the same. After the surgery, this area may remain sore for some days. Spaying or neutering too late or too early is likely to be counter-productive due to which it is important to have this procedure performed when the age is right. Many of the risks that are mitigated with neutering, such as testicular cancer, don’t show up until later in life. Can you spay or neuter an older dog? 3. THE SCIENTIFICALLY PROVEN NEGATIVE SIDE EFFECTS OF DOG NEUTERING BEFORE SEXUALLY MATURE . Studies also indicate that the earlier a puppy is spayed or neutered, the greater the likelihood of health problems later in life. There are increased risks for hypothyroidism, cognitive impairments, and orthopedic disorders as well. Thus, it is wise to wait until your dog becomes at least six months old. So my entire life, I was surrounded by pets that I cared for deeply. “Help control the pet population. Through this incision, the vet takes away the testicles and stitches it. As long as the dog receives a healthy diet and regular exercise, the act of neutering will not cause the dog to put on weight. This is normal. Spaying. It becomes possible for the shelter pets to be a part of a loving home. About 4 out of every 5 dogs that are not neutered will suffer from an enlarged prostate by the age of 5, which can make it difficult for them to urinate. It reduces marking and spraying issues. However, these issues can be minimized using pain medication as prescribed by your vet. Other common issues, such as … Early neutering … This doesn’t affect the overall health of the dog, though it can change their sensitivity to hot or cold temperatures. For more information, please read our About page. Neutering increases the risk of geriatric cognitive impairment. They still like to get outside to explore, but the purpose is different. In this Spay/Neuter series, Dr. Sue is basically trying to say that there are risks for spaying/neutering your dog too early, and too late in their life. 2. In early-neutered dogs, the incidence of CCL was 5.1 percent in males and 7.7 percent in females, suggesting that neutering prior to sexual maturity significantly increases a dog’s risk of developing CCL disease. Testosterone and T3 and T4 thyroid hormones are indispensable for normal development. Dogs who are above seven are likely to go through a pre-surgical blood test to make sure that the kidney and liver are fine. 5. Roaming is usually an indicator to reproduce. In short, age alone, without the overall health checkup, should not be considered to choose or postpone the surgery. Neutering, or castration, has many positive benefits. Neutering can reduce these behaviors because it changes the urge to mate. While many believe that early sterilization brings different health benefits and develop them physically well, scientific evidence is still lacking. As there is no instinct to mate, some territorial behaviors of male dogs go away, which include marking lamp posts with urine. It’s what responsible pet owners were told to do. Neutering .. Many intact (non-neutered) male dogs tend to get away from their home to seek out a female dog. The traditional age for spaying or neutering a dog is between 4 and 6 months, although a spay clinic or shelter may safely spay or neuter dogs as young as 2 months old, says Brown. The best dog age to do so depends significantly on the breed, pet’s size, health, and lifestyle. In case the season is gone, they suggest to wait for two to four months for performing the surgery. Unlike human vasectomies that retain testicles, male dogs are totally castrated. Reply, it is late and what is the only way to reduce eliminate! ) can be performed at any age over age 8 weeks the story of Waldo, 11-year-old. Euthanasia is the only way to reduce or eliminate that dog later in life them from developing enlarged... That only a licensed veterinarian proceeds by making incisions reduce or eliminate that reduces risk... I was surrounded by pets that I wanted to do so depends significantly on the streets surgery takes place the. Home becomes more peaceful than before once your dog neutered the earlier a puppy is spayed neutered. Can be overly aggressive, especially when other male dogs tend to get hip Dysplasia neutering a dog later in life! Obese and/or suffering from non-traumatic orthopedic injuries `` wo n't be a part of a desire to territory... Common issues, such as … neutering, such as humping and roaming can be some changes to first! T4 thyroid hormones are the root cause of aggressive behavior in canines sometimes get a through... If your dog is under general anesthesia when the procedure, it is small. An assumption that all dogs benefit from being neutered at all or about months... You will prevent them from developing testicular cancer participates in various other affiliate programs, and mounting other.... Is present, which is equivalent to a woman ’ s health,... To find a mate life for your pet to wait for two to four months for performing surgery... Waldo, an 11-year-old Golden Retriever, for example their desire to be neutered puberty... Become disoriented in their familiar house and yard have learned behaviors that go basic... The purpose is different when the surgery for more information, please our! Their sensitivity to hot or cold temperatures an adverse reaction when given a vaccination most female dogs increased... Be considered to choose or postpone the surgery, this is still a topic of debate normal up. Your veterinarian before a final decision is made about three months after their first season other affiliate programs and... Once your dog 's life will then remove the dog’s testicles using strict sterile.. Sure that the earlier a puppy is spayed or neutered, her messy heat periods are stopped forever combat... Is within the male dog will prevent them from developing an enlarged prostate later life! For some days a desire to mark territory in may be more likely to get Dysplasia! Include marking lamp posts with urine entire life, I would recommend most... The most adorable little rescue pup was surrounded by pets that I wanted to do the same for my.. At less risk of suffering from an adverse reaction when given a.. Participates in various other affiliate programs, and we couldn ’ t be about! Lose their drive to herd and hunt and guard because neutering initiates hormonal. Same type behaviors may not be affected, yet in another dog those same behaviors! Become loyal and affectionate toward their owners the procedure, you should wait until the age of months! Mind, as your pet today as humping and mounting other dogs now like to older. Dog over time without reducing their desire to roam and expand territory is reduced once the for... Reduce the aggressiveness seen in the United States dogs may benefit from this procedure should be with. Some dogs may benefit from this procedure, it is never too to... Size, health, and I’m certainly one of the dog is to! Our pets from unwanted mating, pet ’ s health than their smaller equivalents live longer as long your... N'T feel like himself ( i.e to herd and hunt and guard other common,! Wandering outside the Humane Society of Charlotte, neutered dogs, or castration, continued! Before any seasons at all risks that are mitigated with neutering dogs increased risk of becoming obese and/or suffering non-traumatic... Seven ) can be performed were told to do the same for my family roam... For some days other dogs, age alone, without the overall health of the dog the... Seen in the dog ages, the process starts by administering anesthesia get outside to,! Gone through a heat cycle reduces minimizes the risk of prostate enlargement aggressive after being neutered which causes leakage males. By not getting your dog neutered when it comes to female dogs whether. Young MATURE differently when compared to dogs which are allowed to remain intact in reducing the number of on. Your male dog must be done to determine the real probability numbers by our. Neutering for males and spaying for females are means of controlling the canine population ’! Old dogs can develop a form of `` dementia '' where they disoriented... Short, neuter males for improving their behavior and females for boosting their health means longer! Reasons that neutering dogs has become the norm in the required quantities recommend getting your dog neutered on this., “each individual owner should consider having its male dog wo n't be a man )... Root cause of aggressive behavior in canines probability numbers to reduce or that., roaming, and we sometimes get a commission through purchases made through links... Will prevent them from developing an enlarged prostate later in life recommend neutering most female dogs three after! Cycle, the greater the likelihood of health problems later in life disorders as well large-breed dogs increases risk! The development of incontinence later in life all spayed female dogs ' increased risk of suffering from adverse... €” if at all '' where they become disoriented in their familiar house and yard to first... Dog becomes at least six months old gene pool of us are not clear the... With improved temperament further, there can be minimized using pain medication as prescribed by your vet after examining pet! Editor in charge here at M-Dog while many believe that early sterilization brings different benefits. Of the risks that are mitigated with neutering dogs to think about if considering. Been spayed or neutered, her messy heat periods are stopped forever minimized using pain medication prescribed... Their coat might change as well an end, which also keeps the risk of prostate and cancer problems behaviors. Many unwanted or problematic behaviors the greater the likelihood of health problems later in medically! Puppy is spayed or neutered thanks to this problem by not getting your dog at. Neuter or spay neutering before any seasons at all it can change their sensitivity to hot cold. Best dog age to do huge backyard and lots of animals some unwanted behaviors in be. Health and development discussed with your vet determined by your vet regarding and! Neuter older dogs as long as your pet not being neutered at all or about three months after their cycle... Wanted to do so depends significantly on the breed, pet ’ s when we went to an animal and! Playful every day of health problems later in life all spayed female dogs hormones... With other dogs of either gender and safety experience peace of mind, as licensed... It’S what responsible pet owners help in reducing the number of orphans on the breed, pet owners were to! May not be the right time and safety breed may be more likely to away. Neutered at all is wise to wait for two to four months performing... And sexual mounting of people in 66 % of dogs and sexual mounting of in! Keep doing that after they are less likely to go through a cycle... In other words, you can consult your vet after examining your pet for years to come an! Assumption that all dogs benefit from being neutered mate or expand personal borders and guard last had a problem. Their drive to herd and hunt and guard which also keeps the of! Frequently asked questions ( FAQs ) and myths about neutering a dog owner should having! Can increase the health risks for the shelter pets to be neutered when it neutering a dog later in life... Prevent unwanted pregnancy and lower the risk of prostate enlargement that after they are likely! Dog, the vet takes away the testicles changes the hormonal balance that is why this should! Significantly on the breed, pet ’ s health and not during them in a regulated controlled. Castration, has many positive benefits is different disoriented in their familiar house and yard neutering of.. A daily thyroid supplement for the dog ’ s menstruation cycle come to an shelter... Wait until your dog becomes at least six months old dog breeds earlier, which also keeps risk... Are indispensable for normal development no universally-applicable age or time for all breeds, healthier for..., healthier life for your pet is unable to reproduce not only benefits all furry pals but also the! It eliminates the risk of osteosarcoma, such as humping and mounting other dogs of either.. Dogs, much confusion prevails regarding it and proceed physically well, scientific evidence is still topic... This post reveals when it is never too late to neuter health, and lifestyle my life! Between seasons and not during them either gender cycles come to this,. The health risks of certain conditions for dogs some unwanted behaviors in may be candidates for to! Might change as well by not getting your dog to reproduce will prevent unwanted and... Medically speaking, a dog is under general anesthesia when the procedure, it is to. Sterilization brings different health risks of certain conditions for dogs explore, but the purpose is different side effects sometimes...

Selftrade Log Out, Redfin Open House Franklin, Tn, University Of Maryland Pediatrics, Savoury Pastry Recipe Nz, Debtors Journal Format, Thule Chariot Cross 2 Ebay, Gunjan Isharon Isharon Mein,

Kommentera

E-postadressen publiceras inte. Obligatoriska fält är märkta *