It should also be stated that in spelling out in such stark outline the individualistic, personalistic, and localistic features of the Southern way of religion, I do not by any means wish to deny the many positive contributions of that religion to the lives of white Southerners. Since the civil rights era, Jews have joined Catholics as increasingly “blended in” to the southern religious landscape, especially in the largest urban areas and in university communities. A network of churches and itinerant ministers, And that has been the basic mode of the Southern way of religion to our own time. southern definition: 1. in or from the south part of an area: 2. in or from the south part of an area: . The community was to be nurtured, disciplined, conditioned to fulfill Cod’s penultimate plan. The Southern way of religion was decidedly moralistic, with ministers more apt to attack individual moral failings than social evils. As a result, scholars have been able to speak of a “solid South” in religion, one that has room for High Church Christianity for the elite and for Catholics in particular regions, but one that is fundamentally defined by Southern Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, and (more recently) Pentecostals. mid-1740’s a group of farmers in Hanover County, just north of Richmond, began meeting together in farm houses seeking the religious fellowship and zeal they had not found in the established Anglican Church, they, absent a minister, began to read to one another from a collection of Martin Luther’s sermons. In these private gatherings, the deepest desires for freedom found expression among people otherwise compelled to dissemble before old master. Puritanism was a doctrine-centered movement that usually held in creative tension both rationality and faith, and it proved to be an adaptive, evolving religious system. several days in preparation for communion—in fact, the practice can be traced back to Scotland—and Methodists in England and along the eastern seaboard had held large outdoor services, the size, duration, and multidenominational format of the Gasper River event was unprecedented. The history of Southern religion is filled with irony, but none greater so than the shift of the evangelicals from being countercultural dissenters, despised and even persecuted for their opposition to slavery and the planter lifestyle in the mid-18th century, to fervent defenders of slavery and the idea of a separate Southern nation. Holiness and Pentecostal preachers and singers were among the most culturally innovative and entrepreneurial of 20th-century plain folk southerners. the New World: the mission to create a holy Bible commonwealth in what was called a howling wilderness and the corresponding mission to export that model of the Godly society back to the Old World to complete the Reformation. You have read 1 of 10 free articles in the past 30 days. The Baptists were actually persecuted by the ruling civic and church authorities. Learn more about Puritanism, its history, and beliefs. Since much of this concerns contemporary groups, anthropologists and sociologists have been the pioneers of this work. In like manner the Baptists and Methodists were from the beginning open to black worshippers and were often opponents of slavery. In other words, Southern women revealed a more personalistic attitude in their wills than did men, and very possibly it is the action of Southern women that produces the vaunted personalism of the region. The story these scholars tell is complex and, in some measures, contested. Although drawing in multiple influences both secular and religious, the freedom struggle was sustained through the religious vision of the ordinary black (and a few white) southerners who made up its rank and file, braved harassment and intimidation, and transformed the consciousness and conscience of the country. Jews held a respected spot, too, in the cultural imaginary of southern evangelical Protestants, since Jews were, after all, descended from Abraham and Moses and David. A fledgling national government, the Articles of Confederation, had finally been ratified in March 1781, but it proved unable to cope with the multiple demands of a new nation not all of whose constituent states yet fully accepted even this relatively weak central government. Women have found avenues of service and leadership in times when the larger society excluded them from positions of leadership, and many Southern people whose lack of affluence and education left them powerless in secular society have found strength and leadership roles in their churches. An evening mist swirled around him as a lone red spotlight shone. Thus, biblical literalists had to give them respect, even if they knew nothing in particular of what Judaism was actually about. Government-imposed tobacco taxes paid the ministers’ salaries, thus insulating them even further from the necessity of appealing to popular needs or preferences. The beginnings of the Southern religious tradition are not as well known, and the particular historical context in which it developed largely shaped its character and style. Unlike the Northeast, the South was not settled by Puritans attempting to found a theocracy, but by a wide variety of people with diverse motives who saw hope, economic as well as religious, in … Kenneth J. Zanca, ed., American Catholics and Slavery, 1789–1866 (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1994). The first permanent English settlement was established in 1653 when emigrants from the Virginia Colony, New England, and Bermuda settled on the shores of Albemarle Sound in the northeastern corner of present-day North Carolina. The evangelical ministers were less concerned about the institution of slavery than they were the state of the souls of individual blacks. Southern evangelical culture also varied greatly by subregion—between city and country, the Southeast and Southwest, Virginia and Texas, Florida and Kentucky, the Appalachian Mountains and the Lowcountry, the piney woods and the Black Belt, the Dust Bowl and the Florida swamplands. More commonly, they adopt theologies that sanctify inequality. Copyright ©2020 The Virginia Quarterly Review. In a sense, however, they represent the ends of a spectrum along which many well-meaning Christians have sought to position themselves. Freedom of religion definition is - the right to choose what religion to follow and to worship without interference. It is only by beginning with an overblown interpretative construct of a continental great awakening in the 1740’s, whereby the merest evidence of some religious stirrings is seized as proof of a nearly universal awakening, that one can (incorrectly) describe the events of the mid-18th-century South as being a part of the First Great Awakening. No one could have known who would end up as the political or religious victor in a multipolar world where Natives and non-English Europeans possessed advantageous geographic control. Printed from Oxford Research Encyclopedias, Religion. Many problems formerly seen as “northern,” such as gangs and drugs, infiltrated southern communities in places such as the Mississippi Delta, where the civil rights movement never made a serious dent on the disheartening statistics of black poverty. Southern white ministers did not lead attacks against sharecropping, or one-party politics, or segregation, or rampant racism in general. Much of the material that can be used for primary research in the field of southern religious history is starting to come online, and in the case of audio materials is available in CD form. Many of the black gospel pioneers came out of the Baptist and Methodist churches, but the influence of Holiness/Pentecostal performance styles broke through the stranglehold of “respectable” music that had defined urban bourgeois black services. This is a far remove from the United States as a whole, where (for example) Catholics form the single largest religious grouping, while in the South Catholics (at least outside of Louisiana) have always struggled for legitimacy and recognition. Certainly converts gathered together in warmly supportive church communities, but seldom did Southern white Christians conceive of their religion as having a social or reform dimension other than the reformation of individual sinners (which, it was believed, would translate into a better society). Jews established a significant presence early in southern history—significant not in terms of numbers, but in terms of occupying important and respected spots in the region’s economic and cultural elite (including in Jefferson Davis’s Confederate cabinet). Through black and white variants of gospel music and in the rhythmic intensity that black and white Pentecostals carried forward through the 20th century, Americans recaptured a deep soulfulness and spiritual dance and listened avidly to thinly veiled secularized versions of those forms in the popular music of the post–World War II era. Observers of the South have long noted the personalism of the folk Suddenly a woman at the back of the church began to shout and cry, and her emotional ecstasy like a shock of electrical current flashed across the pews, producing an instant religious fervor unlike anything that McGready and his fellow Presbyterians had ever witnessed. Indeed, it is southern religion that was at the heart of much of 20th-century American culture. The blues were one medium for older African-derived spiritualities driven underground by the assimilationist tendencies of late-19th-century black religious leaders. The civil rights struggle re-formed southern denominations, splitting them along the lines of conservatives, moderates, and liberals that typically form cross-denominational alliances. These were years of political turmoil, economic disruption, agricultural transition, and significant population movement. Black members were considered part of churches, even if only their first names might be recorded on the roll book. Within a three-decade period, in unlinked but successive movements, Presbyterian, Baptist, and then Methodist churches and networks of ministers were developed in Virginia and, in rudimentary form, throughout the rest of the Southern colonies. Eugene Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York: Pantheon, 1974); Albert Raboteau, Slave Religion: The Invisible Institution in the Antebellum South (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978). Evangelical: Southern Baptists are Evangelical, meaning they adhere to the belief that while humanity is fallen, the good news is that Christ came to pay the penalty for sin on the cross. It was an unstable foundation in the context of American liberal democracy, but one common in human history. Indeed, despite their reputation for stalwart conservatism, southern evangelicals in fact led the progressive movement in the early 20th century. Only a proper ordering of the races would maintain white southern purity against defilement—the sexual metaphors behind the race politics were obvious and restated endlessly. Moreover, the opening up of lands far to the west, now that the hated Proclamation of 1763 was voided, meant that Kentucky and Tennessee beckoned farmers and planters who hoped to find better agricultural prospects on the famously fertile lands of the frontier. Southern California is one of the most diverse regions in the United States. Losing My Religion Story of Song. The Agricultural metaphors were commonly employed to describe the expected result: showers of blessings, a harvest time for religion. Statistics can tell many stories, of course. Since the 1960s, social activism in southern religion largely has passed from the civil rights coalition, whose primary focus was racial justice in the South, to the religious right, seen in the rise of figures such as Jerry Falwell, Pat Robertson, and Ralph Reed. They saw it differently: what did it prosper the slaves to gain earthly freedom yet lose the chance for eternal life? Once the former colonies became states, they Indeed, by the late 1990s it was becoming apparent that immigration from Mexico, Central and South America, and Asia was dramatically changing particular biracial southern patterns. Religion in South Africa is dominated by various branches of Christianity. During and after the Civil War, white evangelicals entered the public arena as never before. Hearing of this development and rightfully seeing it as a missionary opportunity, Presbyterian minister William Robinson from the Valley journeyed eastward across the Blue Ridge and began to preach in person to the quasi-Lutherans, gathering them into the Presbyterian fold. By the 1906 religious census, the National Baptist Convention claimed more than two million communicants, or over 61 percent of black churchgoers. (Oakland: University of California Press, 1992–2014). Even this interaction of religion and public life appears likely to change, however, as (for example) Hispanic Catholics and Pentecostals make their voices heard, and highly educated Asians in the university and medical communities grow more assertive in public expression of their Hindu, Buddhist, Catholic, Sikh, or other faiths. into Virginia of three activist denominations in the generation after 1740: in order of appearance, the Presbyterians, the Baptists, and the Methodists. Old Testament images of divine wrath and punishment were blended with New Testament homilies about the friendly Jesus dying a substitutionary death to purchase their salvation. Once they learn that intended lesson, how do they communicate their contrition to God? But beneath that ran the powerful stream of black Protestant ideas (translated sometimes through Gandhian and Catholic Worker notions of civil disobedience and active resistance) that moved southern folk and pushed forward a leadership that otherwise remained cautious and circumspect. The Southern common folk felt doubly excluded, unmoved by pedantic, read sermons and restricted to the back pews—the upfront paid pews were reserved for the families of the plantation aristocrats whose patriarchs sat on the vestries. Journal of Southern Religion (1998–). Belief in conjure—or at least a willingness to suspend disbelief—pervaded much of the Deep South. It has also been distinctive for the remarkable strength, resilience, and durability of evangelical Protestantism in the region, far exceeding that of any other region in the country. As evangelicalism accommodated to Southern society in order to be allowed to preach the gospel in the slave quarters, and as more and more slaves became Christians, Southern white ministers and their flocks came to see slavery as a divine institution—the process God devised to introduce Africans to Christianity. The “Southern” trend in religion, too, mirrored the national scene, as black and white evangelicals were “divided by faith.” The common thread of evangelicalism running through the southern tradition could not mask the very different social interpretations given to faith by black and white church communities. southern term for losing one's temper, "flying off the handle", etc. On the other hand, in “Church, Honor and Secession” (Religion and the American Civil War), Bertram Wyatt-Brown determines that most southern clergy reluctantly embraced secession, a situation attributed to long-standing ties to northern conservatives, a tradition of speaking softly on controversial public issues, and a hesitation to embrace southern manliness and honor. Southern evangelicalism has never been as removed from engagement in this world’s affairs as its adherents (and many historians since) typically have claimed. Before the American Revolution, the Anglican Church served as the established church throughout the southern colonies. Scholars today might employ such concepts as crowd psychology or mass hysteria to explain what happened in August 1800, but the participants were sure they had just experienced a mighty act of God on the Kentucky frontier. No one foresaw the way in which the religious cosmologies and practices of early Anglo-American evangelicals would eventually meld into an evangelical enthusiasm. Such remains the case today, when the activist impulse has migrated rightward and lodged itself firmly in the hands of a (mostly) white evangelical leadership. The “Culture” part of the Center’s name largely connoted a focus on the literary and musical arts, with three articles on southern writers and religion. Every summer there was a scheduled week-long revival, with services each night. Even many of the common Religion definition, a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency or agencies, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs. That penalty, now paid in full, means God offers forgiveness and new life as a free gift. But a prophetic element—a willingness to judge the institutions of society as opposed to condemning the behavior—was woefully underdeveloped. Despite the presence of the occasional odd anti-slavery southern divine, white southern Christians erected a wall of separation between the realms of spiritual and temporal equality. We as Southern Baptists embrace the uniqueness and essentials listed above, but move further into the Southern Baptist distinctive of cooperation. Another invaluable collection is the American Missionary Association Records held at the Amistad Research Center at Tulane University in New Orleans; in particular, this is the starting point for understanding religion and education in the post–Civil War South.11, Recent published documentary history collections are providing easy-to-access and invaluable forays into primary source research. Since the 1960s the standard biblical arguments against racial equality have become relics, embarrassments from a bygone age. Religion is the substance, the ground, and the depth of man's spiritual life." CRCC’s research on religion in Los Angeles traces it roots back the faith-based response to the L.A. riots. Both the militants and the Thai state (or Buddhists in the south) use religion to not only sanction violence, but to increase its scope and drive wedges between the respective communities. Packed with recipes, decorating tips, entertaining ideas, and travel guides, we guarantee to … Any discussion of southern religion must begin with the landmark works of Samuel S. Hill Jr., whose 1967 Southern Churches in Crisis and subsequent books, including The South and the North in American Religion (1980), have defined the field.4 Focusing almost exclusively on whites, Southern Churches in Crisis defined the archetypal “culture-religion” of southern Christianity, one more experiential and emotional, less doctrinal and intellectual than religion outside the region. No one coerces us. There were still controversies over taxation, over national economic policy and whether there should be a national bank, over foreign policy issues: for many citizens, these momentous public issues crowded religious concerns aside. The power of folk traditions as both internally cohesive and destructive forces in southern black communities also is evident in the practice of conjure, or “black magic,” The practice of conjure, a form of healing and counter-harming that drew from both Christian and African-based religious elements, was primarily the province of poor southern blacks who were its primary practitioners (although whites formed a substantial clientele base). By this reasoning they came to believe that, among other things, God was punishing them for not being sufficiently Christian slaveholders, and they eventually convinced themselves that God was chastising them, molding them on the anvil of sacrifice, for a higher cause: to lead the nation back toward an individualistic, privatistic religion. And that has been the basic mode of the Southern way of religion to our own time. These veritable folk ministers were extremely effective salesmen The origins of the Northern religious tradition lie in the well-known Puritan migration to New England in the 17th century. 5. How to use religion in a sentence. As with the Presbyterians, the first Baptists appeared in the South in the 1680’s, and over the next 70 years there developed a scattering of various Baptist sects with names like Particular Baptists, Free Will Baptists, General Baptists, all vaguely descriptive of their attitudes toward the availability of salvation to humankind. During the mid-20th century, religious segregationists peopled the white churches of the region, but they were difficult to organize into concerted action. Religion is a social-cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, morals, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, and spiritual elements. migrating farmers were almost consumed by thoughts of land, slaves, cotton, and riches. Despite the heroic efforts of some priests and the attempts by Catholics to avoid the segregated church model of the Protestants, Catholics increasingly fit into a southern mold as well. The evangelical churches in the first decades of their existence in the South had been critics of slavery, but Yet the parishes were geographically large, transportation was primitive, and few of the ministers were very effective at communicating the faith or engendering warm attachments to particular churches. Only a decade after the war, hardly any black parishioners still worshipped in the historically white southern churches. Southern culture has been and remains generally more socially conservative than that of the rest of the country.Because of the central role of agriculture and slavery in the antebellum economy, society remained stratified according to land ownership, and communities often developed strong attachment to their churches as the primary community institution. Branch definition is - a natural subdivision of a plant stem; especially : a secondary shoot or stem (such as a bough) arising from a main axis (as of a tree). Since God knows and controls everything, he obviously is aware of the decline in religious interest and somehow must be the cause of it. Some ministers declared slavery to be a sin, freed their own slaves, and advocated lifting restrictions on black men who wished to preach the gospel in public. in the minds of white Christians the clearest justification for bondage. The South had particular economic and agricultural stresses. Calvinism is based on the theological beliefs and teaching of John Calvin (1509-1564), a leader of the Reformation, and Arminianism is based on the views of Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560-1609). Heathen definition is - of or relating to people or nations that do not acknowledge the God of the Bible : of or relating to heathens, their religions, or their customs : pagan. Zachary Abuza . Religion, as well as the study of religion, can be located in colonial contexts. No one could have guessed where history was headed. Later Southern ministers joined the temperance movement and thundered against alcoholics, but the late-19th-century Social Gospel was anemic in the Southern states. augmented by lay persons organized in classes and bands, was ready to spread the Methodist doctrine. And in a very real way they suggest the Northern and Southern styles of religious impulse. I later came to realize that I had grown up in the Bible Belt, but it never occurred to me then that my religious situation was different from that in other regions. The predominance of southern preachers on the airwaves provides the kind of oral soundtrack that many Americans associate with conservative Protestant Christianity more generally. Evangelicals were alienated from the dominant culture and focused inwardly and on their immediate church community. Much good has resulted from the sway of evangelical Protestantism in the South, particularly in the lives of individuals. After World War II, the American creed required white southern theologians to mouth the words that all men were created equal. An Op-Ed piece in The New York Times on April 5, 1997, spoke of a major shift occurring in American Protestantism, with the great divide being North versus South. Some important areas, such as the history of southern Pentecostalism, cry out for more research. When did the South become religious, Protestantized as it were? Both Baptists and Methodists emphasized plain dress and aversion to conspicuous consumption and display, placing them in opposition to the plantation aristocrats who dominated the Anglican churches. She sees a vital partnership between churches and the government to shape and discipline the society. Southern religion is a distinctive cultural religious system that emerged as a result of various historical, demographic, political, and religious developments in the southeastern region of the United States. Literally thousands were attending the camp meetings, new converts by the hundreds swelled church rolls, sometimes increasing the members three- and fourfold. Civil War historians have long pointed to pro-slavery views as central to southern religion of the Civil War era. Thus, in looking at “minority” religions in the South (which includes Catholicism, Judaism, Asian religions, and Islam), one faces first their near invisibility in the region, at least until quite recently. But of course victory did not come. Throughout the North and Midwest tin’s Northern religious tradition fueled a variety of reform movements: the revivalism of Charles G. Finney, for example, led to attempts at social perfectionism including abolitionism and a wide range- of ameliorative activities. The three Protestant denominations that have been most dominant in the South—Presbyterians, Baptists, and Methodists, and particularly the latter two—have proved to share more with one another in their emphases in the South than they have with their Northern denominational counterparts. Much has been written about the role of religion and reform in the Northern states. Black and white Pentecostals seized on the opportunities provided by mass media to spread their message. When religion is seen in terms of sacred, divine, intensive valuing, or ultimate concern, then it is possible to understand why scientific findings and philosophical criticisms (e.g., those made by Richard Dawkins) do not necessarily disturb its adherents. Religion in the southern Thailand conflict. Churches and associations were actually declining in membership. As a result, scholars have been able to speak of a “solid South” in religion, one that has room for High Church Christianity for the elite and for Catholics in particular regions, but one that is fundamentally defined by Southern Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, and … Clergy who for years had bemoaned the state of religion in the South were now tremendously energized, and they for a while submerged theological Hardly any substantial scholarship exists on some key figures, such as Charles Harrison Mason, founder of the Memphis-based black Pentecostal Church of God in Christ. 10. Fears of unseen powers—signified by specially concocted mixtures of roots, plants, and bags—compelled frequent recourse to conjure men. In the black community, the church was concerned with more than just the state of one’s soul. … Thomas Tweed’s study of a Cuban Catholic shrine in Miami is one of the first of what will be many more works on non-Protestant religious expressions in the recent South. Lieu de culte juif: Grande synagogue de Belz, Mur des Lamentations. From the comfortable perspective of hindsight, these changes appear the natural and predictable consequences of growth and change, evidence of the dynamic nature of the society of the early national period. Although ministers continued to preach, people joined the churches, and young men joined the ministry in the period immediately after the war, and there was even a very localized interdenominational revival in central Virginia in the mid-1780’s, on the whole these were inauspicious years for church growth. Do not create your own religions here! This is evidenced in the rich literary tradition of figures such as Flannery O’Connor, William Faulkner, Alice Walker, and Walker Percy; in the musical sounds of shape-note singing, the black spirituals, and white and black gospel; in the oratorical artistry of countless chanted sermons and well-known evangelists such as Billy Graham; and it is also wonderfully expressed by the visionary art works of figures such as Howard Finster. More Southerners (almost 42 percent, in comparison to 33 percent for those outside the region) agreed with the statement that religion was “extremely important” in their lives. In particular, the evangelical individualism that was such a deep part of southern white religious history prevented many good-hearted white southerners from seeing what their black brethren knew very well, that the deep racial and structural divide in American life would not be broken down by “changing hearts” or other nostrums dear to the hearts of evangelicals. The best starting point is the six-CD collection Goodbye Babylon (Dust-to-Digital Records, Atlanta, Georgia, 2003), a sampler of nearly every kind of southern religious music recorded earlier in the 20th century. It was a sultry Friday evening service, and the faithful, weary but hopeful as always that the much anticipated divine intervention would occur, were listening to a series of sermons. Religion, human beings’ relation to that which they regard as holy, sacred, absolute, spiritual, divine, or worthy of especial reverence. Institutional structures that produce poverty, child abuse, poor health care and! 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